Arrhenuis, Suante: defined acids and bases in terms of behavior in water (172-173).
Aspdin, Joseph: rediscovered the Roman use of CaO for cement (827).
Avogado, Amedeo: Avogardo's Hypothesis in 1811, Equal volumes of different gases (at room temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of particles (13-15).
Balmer, Johann: found hydrogen atoms emit a series of lines in visible light: v = [1/4 - 1/n2]x 3.29x 1015 s-1 (534).
Bartlett, Neil: found a reaction with Xe and fluorine (800-801).
Becquerel, Antoine: discoverer of radioactivity; Observed potassium uranyl sulfate exposed photographically in the dark (499).
Binnig, Gerd: eveloped the Scanning Tunnel Microscope (STM), which images low energy atoms (30).
Black, Joseph: Showed that marble (CaCO3) dissociated when burned to form CaO and CO2 (100).
Bohr, Niels: Proposed H model with energy states; Bohr's model of the atom provided a bridge from theoretical physics to quantum mechanics. (534, 538, 542).
Boltzmann, Ludwig: Found f(u) for gas molecules of mass (m) at temperature (T);[Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution (113, 116-117).
Boyle, Robert: Wrote the influential book, The Skeptical Chemist in 1660; Published The Spring of Air and its Effects properties of gas;
Boyles Law: PV=C (3-4, 103-104).
Bragg, William: Nobel Prize for diffraction of x-ray by crystals (698).
Bronsted, Johannes: Defined acids and bases; acids donate H+ and
bases accept H+ (315).
Carnot, Sadi: Concluded there is no devise that can transfer heat from a colder to a warmer reservoir without net expenditure of work. (251-252).
Cavendish, Henery: Noticed residue gas (Argon) when O2 and N2 were removed from air (23, 621, 768).
Charles, Jaques: First human flight in hydrogen balloon, 1783 ( 106, 735).
Clausius, Rudolf: Stated the Second Law of Thermodynamics as It is impossible to construct a device that will transfer heat from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir in a continuous cycle with no net expenditure of work. (113, 255-256).
Coulomb, Charles: Noticed + and - forces and electrical charge between charged batteries; Coulomb (C) (A. 16).
Curie, Marie: Isolated radium; Curium (Cu) (8, 18).
Curie, Pierre: Isolated radium (18).
Dalton, John: Showed evidence of atoms existence:
Atomic Theory of Matter (10-14, 111).
Davy, Humphry: Obtained aluminum as an alloy of iron and proved it to have a metallic nature (409, 746, 783).
Deacon, Henry: Developed the process to convert hydrogen chloride into chlorine (784).
de Broglie, Louis: Proved that any particle moving with linear momentum (p) has wave-like properties and a wavelength (h/p) associated with it; gave wavelength properties to electrons in atoms (542-546).
Einstein, Albert: Was responsible for the theory of relativity, which stated that a change in mass always accompanies a change in energy; Said that spontaneous transformations of one nucleus into other can occur only if the combined mass of products is smaller than the mass of the original nuclide; Wrote a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt warning him of the possible military uses of fission: he was concerned that Germany might try to develop a fission bomb during WWII; Used
Planck’s quantum hypothesis to explain the photoelectric effect (4, 8, 193, 493, 508).
Faraday, Michael: Stated Faraday’s laws, which summarize the stoichiometry of electrochemical processes (192, 407, 409).
Enrico Fermi: has the element fermium, with atomic number 100, named after him. He led a group of physicists to study the relationship between neutrons and the reactions with nearby nuclei and their radioactive products (8, 507-510).
Franck, James: made an apparatus, along with Gustav Hertz that test Bohr’s hypothesis. This contraption showed how the atoms were quantized or moved from ground state to an excited state while emitting energy. Frank and Hertz evaluated this emitted light using a spectrograph (534-535).
Franklin, Rosalind: was a British biophysicist that used x-ray diffraction to determine that there was more than one strand involved in the DNA structure that twisted into a helix (873-4).
Frasch, Herman: devised a method, called the Frasch process, to mine sulfur by making it a liquid and pumping it to the surface (759).
Galilei, Galileo: was an Italian astronomer and physicist (101).
Gay-Lussac, Joseph: made the law of combining volumes such as in writing equations to show how reactions take place. He also determined the freezing point of water in 1802 to be 267K. He was close in approximating this because we now know that it is closer to 273.15K. In 1835, he built a tower to reduce the venting of NO gas into the air. This tower, in a round-a-bout way converts this NO gas back to less dangerous NO2 (13-14, 106, 756).
Graham, Thomas: developed a law of effusion of gas particles through a hole in a vacuum. He says that this rate is inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass (120).
Haber, Fritz: along with Max Born, developed a thermodynamic cycle that can measure ionic lattice energies. It is called the Born-Haber cycle. Also, Haber and Walther Nernst studied ammonia and the elements that make it up when affected by temperature and by pressure. Then Haber and Bosch developed a process for synthesizing sulfur called yes that’s right, the Haber-Bosch process (715, 768-769).
Hert, Gustav: experimented along with James Franck in 1914 with Bohr’s hypothesis on the energy of atoms and how they are quantized. Their apparatus contained a cathode where electrons from a low-pressure gas were emitted. These electrons sped toward the anode and passed through the holes into a collector plate (534-535).
Joule, James: an English physicist who, with German physician Julius Mayer, demonstrated that a substance’s temperature could be increased not only by adding heat to it, but by doing work on it. The SI unit of energy, the joule, was named after him (211-212, 236).
Kelvin, Whilliam Thomas Lord: agreed with Sadie Carnot’s claim that it is not possible to create an engine that is 100 percent efficient. He stated this more generally when he said, “There is no device that can transform heat withdrawn from a reservoir completely into work with no other effect (252).
Lavoisier, Antoine: a French chemist who proved that the total mass of products equals the total mass of reactants in a chemical reaction. He introduced the law of conservation of mass, and he helped discover that air is made mostly of oxygen and nitrogen (9-10, 99 693).
LeBlanc, Nicholas: a French physician and amateur chemist who discovered a way to produce sodium carbonate from sodium chloride. The process was eventually named after him (the Leblanc process), but he wasn’t honored for the discovery while he was alive (782).
Le Chatelier, Henri: famous for “Le Chatelier’s principle,” which states, “A system in equilibrium that is subjected to a stress will react in a way that tends to counteract the stress.” This principle can be used to predict the direction a system under external stress will change (300).
Lewis, G.N.: gave the name “photons” to the particles of light (530).
Lowry, Thomas: introduced the modern definitions of acids and bases in the same year as, but working independently from, Johannes Bronsted. Acids known as “Bronsted-Lowry acids” contain a hydrogen ion, and bases known as “Bronsted-Lowry bases” can accept this hydrogen ion (315).
Maxwell, James Clerk: a physicist who introduced the kinetic theory of gases along with Rudolf Clausius and Ludwig Boltzmann. He also, about the same time as but independently from Boltzmann, introduced the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution, which is defined in Oxtoby as the probable distribution for the speeds of molecules in a gas at thermal equilibrium (15, 113, 116-117).
Meiner, Lise: a colleague of Otto Hahn who introduced the term fission (508).
Mendeleev, Dmitri: a Russian who discovered the element mendelevium and introduced the periodic table. Lothar Meyer also introduced a periodic table, but Mendeleev’s was more accurate (8, 22-23, 568).
Millikan, Robert: an American physicist who, with his student H.A. Fletcher, determined the electrical charge of an electron (17).
Mullikan, Robert: defined the electronegativity of each atom in 1934. Mullikan stated that the electronegativity of an atom is proportional to the average of its ionization energy and electron affinity (58-59, 77).
Muller, Karl Alex: teamed with J. Georg Bednorz to search for perovskite ceramics with higher transition temperatures than had previously been recorded. The pair found a transition temperature of 35 K in Ba–L a–Cu–O perovskite phase. This was nearly 12 Kelvins higher than any previous superconductors (831).
Natta, Giulio: used the Ziegler catalyst, TiCl4, to make isotactic polypropylene in 1954. He also developed his own catalyst, VCl4, to make syndiotactic polypropylene (861).
Nernst, Walther: did much of his research on equilibrium. His study of the effects of temperature on the entropy of a pure substance gave rise to the Nernst heat theorem and eventually the third law of thermodynamics. Nernst is perhaps best known for his equation that illustrates the relationship between free energy change and the reaction quotient (264, 768).
Newton, Isaac: known widely for his interactions with apples, Newton was the father of classical mechanics. His gravitational force and projectile motion equations are still used today (523, A.13) .
Oersted, Hans Christian: prepared the first pure form of aluminum in 1825, just 16 years after it’s discovery. He did this by reducing aluminum chloride with an amalgam of potassium (746).
Oppenheimer, J. Robert: teamed with Max Born in becoming the first to illustrate electron energy levels for diatomic molecules. Their schematic diagram of energy levels clearly depicts vibrational, rotational, and excited electronic states (609).
Pauling, Linus: associated with many facets of chemistry, including the analysis of protein structure and the production of an electronegativity scale. Pauling also correctly hypothesized xenon chemistry nearly 30 years before it was ever produced (58, 77, 78c, 800).
Petit, Alex: noted for his work with metallic heat capacities. His research resulted in the Dulong and Petit rule that states 25 J is necessary to heat one mole of a metallic element by one Kelvin (236p, 239p).
Phillips, Peregrine: employed platinum as a catalyst to convert SO2 to SO3. This discovery went largely unnoticed for forty years until the German dye industry demanded a way of producing a more concentrated form of sulfuric acid than was previously possible (757).
Planck, Max: Is known for solving the blackbody radiation paradox in 1900. He felt that it wasn’t possible to put a small amount of energy into an oscillator with a certain frequency, but that the oscillator must gain and lose energy in packets called quanta. With this theory, he used statistical thermodynamics to find the average energy in quantized oscillators as a function of temperature. Today this average is known as Planck’s constant: h = 6.62608 x 10-34 J s. Einstein later used this for his photoelectric effect (527-532).
Priestly, Joseph: Along with Lavoisier and other scientists, Joseph Priestly showed that air is made mostly of Oxygen and Nitrogen. He used the reaction:
2HgO(s) ----> 2Hg(l) +O2(g)
in discovering oxygen. He is also known for studying the composition of the atmosphere and introduced the “rubber” that is known as eraser today (99-100, 621, 862).
Proust, Joseph: Joseph Proust was one who disagreed with Berthollet’s findings and felt that any variation in compounds was because of experimental error. He is known for coming up with the Law of Definite Proportions, which states: In a given chemical compound, proportions by mass of elements that compose it are fixed, independent of origin of the compound or it’s mode of preparation. This finding was a crucial step in modern chemistry (10).
Ramsey, William: Along with Lord Rayleigh, William Ramsey isolated Argon and predicted the existence of a new group of elements. He also studied Helium and was among the first scientists to study the atmosphere’s composition (23, 621).
Raoult, Francois Marie: Francois Marie Raoult came up with the law known as Raoult’s law, which states that for some solutions, a plot of solvent vapor pressure versus solvent mole fraction can be fitted by a close line. The resulting equation is: P1 = X (P01). This law also forms the basis for the four coligative properties of dilute solutions (177).
Strutt, John William: John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) discovered the gaseous element--now known as Argon--that didn’t fit with previously found elements. He was also responsible for developing a detailed description on the charged particle oscillator model of blackbody radiation (755).
Roebuck, John: John Roebuck was the first to employ the room-size lead chamber that expanded the manufacture of sulfuric acid in 1746 (755).
Roentgen, Wilhelm: Wilhelm Roentgen was responsible for discovering x-rays in 1895. This proved to be a valuable tool for determining crystal structures (697).
Rohrer, Heinrick: Along with Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer developed the scanning tunneling microscope, which uses low energy electrons to get atom images. This confirms features such as the size of atoms and distances between them. For his work, he won the Nobel Prize in 1986 (30).
Roosevelt, Franklin: As president, Franklin Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan District Project. This was an effort by many to make a fission bomb (508).
Thompson, Benjamin (Count Rumford): Benjamin Thompson suggested qualitative equivalence of heat and work as a means of energy transfer. By observing cannons, he saw that the quantity of heat made in the boring was proportional to the amount of work done (211).
Rutherford, Ernest: In 1911 Rutherford proposed a model of the atom in which the nucleus possesses most of the mass of the atom. The model is as follows: An atom with the atomic number of Z comprises a dense, central nucleus of positive charge with magnitude Ze surrounded by a total of Z individual electrons moving around the nucleus. This model is still currently accepted. Rutherford’s new theory was at odds with the previous theory. Attempts to reconcile the differences lead to the creation of quantum mechanics (18, 499, 507, 518, A.17).
Sanger, Frank: Complete the first sequence of the 51 amino acids in bovine insulin. This discovery earned Sanger the Noel Prize in chemistry in 1958 (870).
Schelle, Carl Wilhem: Swedish chemist who discovered chlorine in 1774. Schelle prepared it in its elemental form through the reaction of hydrochloric acid and prolusite (130p, 783-784).
Schrodinger, Erwin: Austrian physicist who developed a fundamental explanation of the origin of energy qunatinization. He did this through an analogy concerning the theory of vibrations. (A form of quantization was already understood in this area.) He also developed a fundamental equation of quantum mechanics in 1925, known as the Schrodinger Equation. The equation cannot be derived, but the “particle in a box” can be used to describe the equation (542, 546).
Seaborg, Glenn: One of the key people in the production of plutonium and other elements with high atomic mass (8, 513).
Simon, Pierre, Marquis de Laplace: French astronomer and mathematician who authored the work, Memoir on Heat (237p).
Smalley, Richard: Discovered long-chain molecules by spectroscopically studying radioastronomers in the vicinity of red giant stars. In 1985 he (along with Harold Kroto and Robert Curl) reproduced the environment by vaporizing graphite with a concentrated laser beam. This revealed long-chain molecules, including C60. C60
was named buskminsterfullerene (the buky-ball) after the architect Buckminster Fuller, the inventor of the geodesic dome (618).
Solvay, Ernet: Belgian chemist and industrialist who developed and subsequently patented the process for improved carbonators and stills to recovered ammonia. The Solvay process produced very pure sodium carbonate. The process was also continuous which gave it a great advantage over batch processes (786).
Strassmann, Fritz: Originally sought to characterize the supposed transuranic elements. He (and Otto Hahn) discovered that barium was among the products of the bombardment of uranium by neutrons (508).
Strutt, John William, Lord Rayleigh: Discovered a gaseous element that did fit into Mendeleev’s model of the periodic table. Also developed a sophisticated classical description based on the oscillating electromagnetic waves within the cavity (23, 529).
Sullivan, J.H: Investigated the effect of illuminating the reaction sample of
H2 + I2 = 2HI
His discoveries lead to the conclusion that that the iodine atoms participated in the reaction. This was contrary to the previous belief (465).
Tennant, Charles: was a Scottish chemist that made important advances in the bleaching of cotton. In 1799 he patented a substance which he called “bleaching powder”. This substance was made by saturating slaked lime with chlorine. Using this chemical along with sulfuric acid, bleaching cotton only took about a week instead of months (783-784).
Thompson, Benjamin; Count Rumford: suggested that qualitative equivalence of heat and work as means of energy transfer. He proposed this in 1798. He was a military advisor for the King of Bavaria. He noticed the heat produced while boring canons was proportional to the amount of work done upon it (211).
Thomson, J.J.: was a renowned British Physicist, who in 1897 determined that cathode rays were actually negatively charged particles called “electrons”. He used a series of experiments to prove this hypothesis. The world of chemistry was greatly improved because of this discovery (15-17, 24).
Thomas Kelvin; Lord William: was responsible for our present day absolute temperature scale. Henceforth we get the unit of Kelvins. He used experiments to determine absolute zero (252).
Torricelli, Evangelista: who lived from 1608 to 1647. Torricelli was an Italian scientist who assisted Galileo with many of his experiments. Torricelli is best known for creating the first barometer. He covered a tube filled with mercury and placed it upside down with the open end underneath the surface of a pool of mercury. The units torr are named in honor of Torricelli (101-102) .
van der Waals, Johannes: Dutch physicist who made one of the earliest and most important contributions to the ideal gas theory. He determined what we call today Van der Waals equation of State:
P = n R T _ a n^2
V - n b V^2
He also is associated with Van der Waals radii. He is associated with these intermolecular forces because of the extensive work he did concerning nonbonded interactions between molecules and their influence on properties of elements (123-124, 145).
van’t Hoff, Jacobus: Dutchman who in 1887 discovered an important relationship relating to the pressure of gases. He determined that the osmotic pressure of a gas was the product of the concentration of molecules, the universal gas constant, and the absolute temperature. He is also associated with what is known as van’t Hoff’s equation:
ln K1 = _ d H * 1 1
K2 R T1 T2
Volta, Alessandro: discovered the electrochemical cell in 1800. This was done by stacking discs of zinc and silver with paper saturated in salt solution between each disc. For this contribution we associate electrical power with volts (409, 424-425).
von Laue, Max: suggested that crystals might serve as three dimensional gratings for diffraction of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength comparable to distance between planes of atoms (698).
von Weizsacker, Carl: was one of the scientist to propose the process of hydrogen burning that goes on in the stars. In this reaction two hydrogen nuclei are fused together to form a deuteron atom, a positron, and a high powered photon. The deuteron and another hydrogen nucleus fuse together to form 32He and also emit a gamma ray. Then two of these helium atoms fuse together to make a stable helium atom and two hydrogen nuclei are emitted as byproducts to complete the cycle (512).
Waage, P.: Norwegian chemist, along with his brother-in-law, C.M. Guldberg, first stated the law of mass action in 1864. The Law of mass action is the relationship between concentrations or partial pressures of reactants and products of a chemical reaction at equilibrium, which is denoted by the empirical equilibrium constant (284).
Walton, Ernest: Irish Physicist (along with Sir John Douglas Cockcroft) who devised an accelerator that generated large numbers of particles at lower energies, they went on to disintegrate lithium nuclei with protons, in 1932. It was for this that both Walton and Cockcroft received the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of the first nuclear particle accelerator, now known as the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator (518p).
Ward, Joshua: is credited with improving the Lead-Chamber process, in 1736, by replacing the earthenware vessels in which the sulfur was burned with glass bottles arranged in series to speed up the process (755).
Watson, James: American geneticist and biophysicist, along with Francis Crick proposed the famous double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 1953. They proposed that DNA consisted of two helical strands of nucleic acid polymer bound together by hydrogen bonding, which also lead to new theories in the way of polymer synthesis. For this accomplishment they received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Maurice Wilkins (873).
Werner, Alfred: Alsatian-Swiss chemist is credited with pioneering the field of coordination chemistry. In 1891 he presented the coordination theory, a simple classification of inorganic compounds, which extended the concept of isomerism. In 1913 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into the structure of coordination compounds (670-672).
Wilkins, Maurice: British biophysicist is credited with the significant findings in the X-ray diffraction of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Which proved crucial to the determination of DNA’s molecular structure by James Watson and Sir Francis Crick. For this the trio was awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (873).
Wilson, T.L.: credited with the discovery of calcium carbide. In 1892 Wilson was trying to make elemental calcium from lime and tar in an electric-arc furnace, where he obtained a product that was not calcium. He proceeded to dispose of it into a stream when there upon it reacted violently, giving off large amounts of combustible gas, thus came about the discovery of calcium carbide (768).
Wohler, Friedrich: credited with first synthesizing urea in 1828, from ammonia and cyanic acid. His work demonstrated that organic compounds could be synthesized from strictly inorganic starting materials (770).
Yalow, Rosalyn: an American medical physicist is credited with inventing the radioimmunoassay technique. By combining techniques from radioisotope tracing and immunology, she developed RIA, which simplified the means for measuring minute concentrations of biological and pharmacological substances in bodily fluids. It was for this that she received jointly the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977 with Andrew V. Schally and Roger Guillemin (507).
Ziegler, Karl: German chemist, is credited with showing that ethylene could be polymerized with a catalyst consisting of TiCl4 and an organoaluminum compound (such as Al(C2H5)3.) He received the Nobel Prize jointly with Giulio Natta in Chemistry for his research in improving the quality of plastics (860-861).